Craig Radford

Craig Radford


Start Year: 
2012
Department: 
160 Goat Island Road
Institution: 
University of Auckland
Current Institution: 
University of Auckland
Project Title: 

Anterior lateral line afferent responses to tones and play-back vocalisations in a tethered oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau

Abstract: 

Hearing is a basal vertebrate sense that first evolved in fish. Consequently, sound is perhaps the most efficient and wide spread sensory information cue in the ocean. Sound cues are used in a wide variety of contexts from reproductive signalling to using sound to find home. For fish that rely on acoustic communication for reproductive success, such as in the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau), the ability to detect and localize sound is essential. More recently, it has been shown that the fishes lateral line has been implicated in sound detection. The primary goal of this research is to determine the acoustic sensitivity of the lateral line nerve to pure tones and play backs of natural calls in the oyster toadfish to gain a better understanding of how fish can potentially localize sound.

input:focus, select:focus, textarea:focus { border-color: #2d3e50; } a { color: #2d3e50; } .radio i, .checkbox i { color: #2d3e50; } .radio i:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .button, .btn-default { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .button:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .page-header-top { background-color: #2d3e50; } .page-header-bottom-alt { background-color: #2d3e50; } .page-intro:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .page-intro:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .page-content-section-bg { background-color: #2d3e50; } .page-content-section-bg:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .page-content-section-border { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .page-footer { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-1 { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-1 i { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-2:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-2 i:after, .block-head-2 i:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-3 { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-3 i:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-4:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-7 { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-head-7:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .page-content-section-bg .block-head-3 i { color: #2d3e50; } .main-search button { color: #2d3e50; } .main-search button:after { background: #2d3e50; } .main-nav li a { color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav li a:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav li ul { background-color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav li li:hover > a, .main-nav li li.active > a, #block-newsletter-newsletter-subscribe .form-submit:hover, .block-product-details .add-wishlist .button-alt:hover, .block-product-details-2 .add-wishlist .button-alt:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav .switcher { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav .mega > div { background-color: #2d3e50; } #block-newsletter-newsletter-subscribe .form-submit, .btn-primary:hover, .btn-primary:focus, .btn-primary:active { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .art-portfolio ol li.active, .ui-slider-horizontal .ui-slider-handle, .ui-slider-horizontal .ui-slider-range, .btn-primary.link { background-color: #2d3e50; } .btn-primary, .button:hover, .btn-default:hover, .btn-default:focus, .btn-default:active { border-color: #2d3e50; color: #2d3e50; } .btn-primary.link:hover, .btn-primary.link:focus, .btn-primary.link:active { color: #2d3e50; } } @media screen and (max-width: 767px) { /* phone */ .main-nav ul { background-color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav li a { color: #ecf0f1; } .main-nav li ul { background: #e9e9e9; } .main-nav li li { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav li li a { color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav li li a:hover { background-color: #2d3e50; color: #fff; } .main-nav li li ul { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav .mega ul li { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } } .slider-revolution .fa:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .slider-revolution .title { border-top-color: 1px solid #2d3e50; border-bottom-color: 1px solid #2d3e50; } .slider-revolution .button-my { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .slider-revolution .button-my:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .pagination-1 a:hover { border-color: #2d3e50; color: #2d3e50; } .pagination-1 .active, .pagination-1 .active:hover { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .pagination-2 a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .pagination-2 .active, .pagination-2 .active:hover { background: #2d3e50; } .pagination-3 a:before { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 1px #2d3e50; } .pagination-3 .active:before, .pagination-3 .active:hover:before { background: #2d3e50; } .pagination-4 a:hover { border-color: #2d3e50; } .pagination-4 .active { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .pagination-5 a { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; color: #2d3e50; } .block-benefits div:hover { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-benefits i { color: #2d3e50; } .block-benefits-2 li i { color: #2d3e50; } .block-benefits-2 .tabs a:hover { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-benefits-2 .tabs .active a, .block-benefits-2 .tabs .active a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-benefits-3 i { color: #2d3e50; } .block-about .button { border-color: #2d3e50; color: #2d3e50; } .block-about .button:hover { background: #2d3e50; color: #ecf0f1; } .block-about .owl-prev:hover, .block-about .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-about-2 .bar { background: #2d3e50; } .block-about-2 .value { color: #2d3e50; } .block-about-4 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-about-5 .owl-prev, .block-about-5 .owl-next { display: inline-block; border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-about-5 .owl-prev:hover, .block-about-5 .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-about-6 .icons a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-mission .year { background: #2d3e50; } .block-mission .years a:after { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works ol li:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works ol .active { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works .description { background: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works .description:before { border-right-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-3 h3 { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-3 .link { border-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-3 .fancybox { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-3 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-4:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-4 .fancybox { background: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-4 .owl-prev:hover, .block-recent-works-4 .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-6 a:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-6 .owl-prev, .block-recent-works-6 .owl-next { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-works-6 .owl-prev:hover, .block-recent-works-6 .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio ol li:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio ol li.active { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio ul .pic span:after, .block-portfolio ul .pic span:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio ul .pic span i { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-2 ol li:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-2 ol li.active { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic a { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-2 ul .pic a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-3 ol li:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-3 ol li.active { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-4 h3 { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-4 .link { border-color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-4 .fancybox { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-5 ol li:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-5 ol li.active { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-5 .info:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-6 ol li:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-6 ol li.active { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-6 ul a:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-7 ol li:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-7 ol li.active { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-7 ul li:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-7 ul a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-8 li div:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-portfolio-8 li a { background: #2d3e50; } .block-clients .owl-prev, .block-clients .owl-next { color: #2d3e50; } .block-testimonials-3 .carousel h3 { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination div { border-color: #2d3e50; } .block-testimonials-3 .owl-pagination .active { background: #2d3e50; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-testimonials-4 .owl-prev:hover, .block-testimonials-4 .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-services li a { border-color: #2d3e50; } .block-services li a:hover { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-2 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-2 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #2d3e50; } .block-services-2 li a:hover:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-3 li a:hover { background: none; } .block-services-3 li a:after { box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #2d3e50; } .block-services-3 li a:before { background: #2d3e50; box-shadow: inset 0 0 0 2px #2d3e50; } .block-services-3 li a:hover:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-4 li a { border-color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-4 li a:hover { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-5 li i { color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-5 li i:hover { background: #2d3e50; } .block-services-6 h3 span { color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-6 li a { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-services-6 li a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-services-7 .info i { background: #2d3e50; } .block-services-7 .carousel .active { background: #2d3e50; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-prev:hover, .block-services-7 .carousel .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing dt { color: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing .price:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing li:hover .inner { background: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing li:hover .button { color: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing li:hover .button:hover { background: #2d3e50; } .page-content-section .block-pricing .inner { box-shadow: 0 0 0 1px #2d3e50; } .block-pricing-2 dt { color: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing-2 .price { background: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing-2 .button { color: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .inner { background: #2d3e50; } .block-pricing-2 li:hover .button:hover { background: #2d3e50; } .block-progress li i { border-color: #2d3e50; color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-2 .pic:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-2 .icons a { color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-3 .pic:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-3 .icons a { color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-3 .info h3 { color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-list .pic span:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-list .icons a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-list .icons a:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-team-list .skills { border-top-color: #2d3e50; border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-team-grid .pic:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-skills i:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-skills .bar { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-skills-2 i:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-skills-2 .bar { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-capabilities h3 { color: #2d3e50; } .block-capabilities-2 h3 { color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-posts .info { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-posts-2:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button { color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-posts-2 li .button:hover { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more { color: #2d3e50; } .block-recent-posts-2 .button-more:hover { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-featured-posts .pic:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-list .link { background: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-list .date:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-list .date-alt { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-list .zoom { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-grid .link { background: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-grid .date:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-grid .pic:hover .date { color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-grid .zoom { color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-details .date:before, .block-blog-details .reply:before, .block-blog-details .type:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-details .date-alt { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-details .share a:before { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-details .share a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-blog-details .about:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view a:hover { border-color: #2d3e50; color: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active, .block-catalog-toolbar .view .active:hover { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-toolbar .direction:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-grid .pic:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-grid .badge { background: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-grid .price { color: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-grid .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-grid .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50;; } .block-catalog-list .pic:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-list .badge:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-list .price { color: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev, .block-catalog-list .owl-next { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-catalog-list .owl-prev:hover, .block-catalog-list .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50;; } .block-product-details .price { color: #2d3e50; } .block-product-details .button-alt { color: #2d3e50; } .block-product-details-2 .button-alt { color: #2d3e50; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:before { background-color: #2d3e50; box-shadow: 0 0 0 2px #2d3e50; } .block-product-details-2 .share a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-product-info .owl-prev, .block-product-info .owl-next { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-product-info .owl-prev:hover, .block-product-info .owl-next:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-product-tabs .head .active { color: #2d3e50; } .block-product-tabs .head .active:before { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart th { border-top-color: #2d3e50; color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart .price { color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart .remove { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart .remove:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart .quantity a { color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart .empty td { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart-totals dd { color: #2d3e50; } .block-shopping-cart-totals .button-alt { color: #2d3e50; } .block-checkout-order td:last-child { color: #2d3e50; } .block-checkout-payment label { color: #2d3e50; } .block-welcome .icons i:after { border-color: #2d3e50; background: #2d3e50; } .block-welcome .icons a:hover i { color: #2d3e50; } .block-pasteboard:before { background: #2d3e50; } .block-pasteboard .icons a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .block-map-3 .block-head { color: #2d3e50; } .block-contacts ul li:after, .block-contacts ul li:before { border-color: #2d3e50; background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-contacts ul li:before { background-color: #fff; } .block-contacts ul li span { border-bottom-color: #2d3e50; } .block-contacts ul .active { color: #2d3e50; } .block-contacts ul .active:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-contacts ol { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .block-contacts ol li { color: #2d3e50; } .block-contacts ol li i:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-feedback .message i, .block-feedback-2 .message i { color: #2d3e50; } .block-not-found h3 { color: #2d3e50; } .block-not-found .pic:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-not-found .pic div:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-not-found-2 .button { color: #2d3e50; } .block-not-found-2 .button:hover { background: #2d3e50; } .block-coming-soon li:before { background-color: #2d3e50; } .block-coming-soon-2 li:after { background-color: #2d3e50; } .widget-categories a:hover, .widget-categories a.active { color: #2d3e50; } .widget-top-posts a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .widget-text hr { border-top-color: #2d3e50; } .widget-text em { color: #2d3e50; } .widget-archive a:hover, .widget-archive a.active { color: #2d3e50; } .widget-tags a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .widget-categories-filter a:hover { color: #2d3e50; } .widget-categories-filter .active { color: #2d3e50; } .widget-categories-filter .active span { background-color: #2d3e50; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-range { background-color: #2d3e50; } .widget-price-filter .ui-slider-handle { background-color: #2d3e50; } .widget-color-filter .active:before { border-color: #2d3e50; } .widget-top-products .pic i { background-color: #2d3e50; } .main-nav ul { background-color: #2d3e50; }